The metal stamping or printing is a type of manufacturing process by which a subjected metal to a compressive load between two molds. By stamping is meant the process for making metal parts or tools from the slab, a method or process to change forming a metal element by means of heat and thus achieve the desired shape and size.
The load can be a progressively applied pressure or a percussion, for which presses and hammers are used. Molds, are printed or matrices of steel, one sliding over a guide (hammer or upper die) and one fixed (anvil or lower die).
This type of stamping is done with the material at a higher temperature than the recrystallization temperature, which in the case of iron is 910ºC. 1
The product obtained has lower rugoses (mechanical) and dimensional precision than when working in cold, but with the advantage of being able to obtain greater deformations when hot.
The cold stamping is done with the material at a lower temperature than the recrystallization temperature, so the grain is deformed during the process, obtaining anisotropy in the microscopic structure. It is usually applied to pieces of less thickness than when working hot, usually sheets or sheets of uniform thickness.
The main operations of cold stamping are:
Machine press: punching (hole making), cutting (separation of parts of a sheet) or minting.
Embossing: Deformation by bending between dies: curved, folded or rolled.
The materials used in cold stamping are ductile and malleable, such as low alloy steel, aluminum alloys (preferably magnesium, without copper), brass, silver and gold.
The stamping of metals takes a set of both mechanical and chemical operations to achieve the transformation of the piece, so there are different methods of stamping metals such as cold stamping and hot stamping, the latter allows greater metal handling .
Due to the rigorous work that is needed to process metals, you also need tools of optimum quality. Among the tools required, one of the main ones is the press, existing different classes such as the spindle press, the eccentric, among others.
The metal stamping die is another part of this process of metal stamping, which is going to mold the metal and give the shape of the die to the solid material. It is also possible to use dice systems or punches in metal sheets for modifications, such as bending, cutting, and sausages, among others.
With a hot stamping machine (which reaches high temperatures) and the design on the plate for engravings commonly known as cliché is what is done with the help of a press and be called as metal stamping, an object that you want to decorate.
This operation of metal stamping is mostly made as decorative elements such as: calendars, advertising or promotional items, cosmetic packaging, cardboard boxes for drugs or cosmetics, shoe boxes, paper bags, leather goods or textile industry, business cards, among other materials resistant to this high temperature process.